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Thursday, December 13, 2007

Ibadah Haji

Syarat Wajib Haji/Umrah


Rukun Dan Wajib Haji


Rukun Dan Wajib Umrah



Larangan Dalam Ihram


Tawaf


Tempat Permulaan Dan Penghabisan Tawaf

Sa'ei


Melontar


Dam

Takrif

Dam ialah binatang ternakan al-an'am seperti unta, lembu, kambing atau kibas yang disembelih atau gantinya daripada makanan atau puasa yang dikenakan ke atas mereka yang menunaikan haji atau umrah di atas sebab-sebab tertentu.


Dam Ihsar



Dam Tertib Dan Taqdir



Dam Tertib Dan Ta'dil


Dam Takhyir Dan Ta'dil



Dam Takhyir Dan Taqdir







Wednesday, December 12, 2007

Convert Version 4.10


Perisian yang berguna untuk penukaran antara unit yang dapat dimuat turun secara percuma.

Monday, December 10, 2007

Friday, September 14, 2007

Solat Sunat Tarawih

Solat Sunat Tarawih adalah satu jenis sembahyang sunat yang dikerjakan semasa Bulan Ramadan.

Latar Belakang


Tarawih menurut asal katanya ialah duduk untuk istirahat setelah mengerjakan sembahyang empat rakaat. Setiap empat rakaat dinamakan tarawih adalah sebagal majaz, kerana adabnya istirahat sesudahnya. Erti Tarawih ialah duduk bersenang-senang atau beristirahat. Solat Tarawih bererti solat dengan rasa senang dan kelapangan hati selepas solat fardhu Isya'. Biasanya jemaah duduk berehat setelah mengerjakan empat rakaat solat Tarawih dan membaca zikir ataupun doa sebelum disambung semula dengan empat rakaat lagi, sehingga ckup 8 ataupun dua puluh rakaat.

Tarawih itu disebut juga dengan Qiyamu Ramadan. Sembahyang Tarawih dikerjakan setelah mengerjakan sembahyang Isyak dan waktunya berpanjangan sehingga akhir malam.

Dalil

Rasulullah S.A.W. sangat menggalakkan sembahyang Tarawih. Abu Hurairah berkata; “Rasulullah S.A.W. sangat menggalakkan sembahyang tarawih sekali pun beliau tidak mewajibkannya.” Beliau bersabda: “Sesiapa yang mengerjakan Qiyamu Ramadan semata-mata kerana iman dan mengharap ganjaran dari Allah, maka diampuni dosa-dosanya yang lampau.” Qiyamu Ramadan ialah menghidupkan malamnya dengan mengerjakan sembahyang.

Aisyah r.a. berkata; “Rasulullah s.a.w mengerjakan sembahyang tarawih di masjid, kemudian ramai sahabat-sahabat yang mengikutnya. Pada malam berikutnya baginda S.A.W. mengerjakannya lagi di masjid, sahabat-sahabat yang datang pun semakin ramai. Pada malam ketiga sahabat-sahabat berkumpul di masjd menunggu kedatangan Rasulullah S.A.W. tetapi beliau tidak hadir. Besok paginya Rasulullah berkata kepada mereka; “Sesungguhnya aku melihat sambutan kamu. Sebenarnya aku tidak datang pada malam itu hanya kerana takut sembahyang itu diwajibkan ke atas kamu.” Dan peristiwa itu terjadi pada bulan Ramadan.

Hukum

Hukum mengerjakan sembahyang tarawih adalah sunat muakkad (sunat yang sangat dituntut) bagi dikerjakan oleh orang-orang Islam lelaki dan perempuan pada tiap-tiap malam bulan Ramadan sama ada secara berseorangan atau berjemaah. Sembahyang tarawikh lebih afdal dikerjakan secara berjemaah di masjid, sebagaimana yang telah dilakukan oleh Rasulullah S.A.W.

Menurut Imam Al Ghazali dalam buku Rahsia-Rahsia Solat, walaupun solat terawih boleh dilaksanakan secara sendirian tanpa berjemaah, solat terawih yang dilakukan secara berjemaah lebih afdal, sama seperti pendapat Umar r.a. yang mengingatkan bahawa sebahagian solat nawafil telah disyariat dalam solat berjemaah. Solat terawih termasuk solat Tahajjud atau shalatul lail dengan membaca al-Fatihah pada setiap rakaat dan membaca ayat-ayat atau surah daripada al-Quran.

Cara Solat Tarawih

Waktu sembahyang Tarawih ini ialah selepas menunaikan sembahyang Fardhu Isyak sehinggalah ke larut malam. Sembahyang Terawih ditunaikan dengan kumpulan dua rakaat, pada tiap-tiap satu kali takbiratul-ihram kemudiannya dilakukan lagi sehingga genap rakaat yang dikehendaki. Rukun sembahyang sunat Tarawih ini sama sahaja dengan rukun sembahyang yang lain.

Solat sunat Tarawih tidak perlu dibuat sebaik sahaja selesai menunaikan solat Isyak.

Sebaliknya, pengamal boleh melewatkan menunaikan solat sunat Tarawih mengikut pilihan, kerana solat sunat tarawih boleh dibuat sehingga sebelum solat Subuh. Biasanya di Malaysia, solat Tarawih dimulakan selepas jemaah selesai menunaikan solat sunat dua rakaat selepas solat Isyak. Sembahyang Tarawih dilakukan dengan Imam menyaringkan bacaan seperti mana bacaan semasa solat Subuh.

Lafaz Niat Sembahyang Tarawih:

Bermaksud: Sahaja aku sembahyang Tarawih dua rakaat makmum kerana Allah Taala.

Bilangan Rakaat

Pada zaman Rasulullah S.A.W., sembahyang Tarawih dikerjakan sebanyak 8 rakaat saja supaya tidak menimbulkan sesuatu keberatan. Rasulullah S.A.W. juga tidak memberatkan solat ini ditunaikan di masjid kerana tidak mahukan sahabat berfikiran solat ini solat yang wajib. Pada zaman Khalifah Umar bin Al-Khattab pula beliau menambah lagi menjadikan 20 rakaat kerana beliau berpendapat bahawa orang-orang Islam pada zamannya itu tidak keberatan lagi menunaikan sembahyang sebanyak itu.

Sembahyang ini juga dibuatkan sebanyak 20 rakaat dan ditambah 3 rakaat sembahyang witir. Pada umumnya masyarakat Islam di Malaysia mendirikan sembahyang Tarawih sebanyak 20 rakaat dengan ditambah dengan 3 rakaat sembahyang witir.

Sembahyang tarawikh boleh dibuat sebanyak lapan rakaat, sesuai dengan keterangan Aisyah r.a. : “Rasulullah S.A.W. tidak pernah mengerjakan sembahyang sunat, bulan Ramadan atau bulan lainnya, lebih dari empat rakaat, kemudian beliau kerjakan lagi empat rakaat (Jangan tanya tentang baik dan panjangnya), kemudian beliau tambah lagi tiga rakaat yakni witir.” Riwayat Imam Al-Bukhari dan Imam Muslim; “Rasulullah mengerjakannya sebelas rakaat, temasuk di dalamnya sembahyang witir.”

Di Masjidil Haram di Makkah, sembahyang terawih dilakukan dengan diikuti oleh jemaah yang besar. Kebiasaannya imam membaca satu juzuk al-Quran pada setiap kali tarawih dan menamatkan seluruh al-Quran (30 juzuk) pada malam ke-29 Ramadan.

Kelebihan Sembahyang Tarawih

Diriwayatkan daripada Abu Hurairah r.a katanya: Saya telah mendengar sabda Rasulullah s.a.w. mengenai Ramadan: Sesiapa yang mendirikan sembahyang (Tarawih) dalam bulan itu dengan penuh keimanan dan mengharapkan keredaan Allah, akan diampunkan segala dosa yang dilakukannya sebelum itu.

Adab-Adab Puasa Ramadan

Diriwayatkan dari Umar bin Khaththab r.a. telah bersabda Rasulullahsaw: Apabila malam sudah tiba dari arah sini dan siang telah pergidari arah sini, sedang matahari sudah terbenam, maka orang yang puasa boleh berbuka.(H.R.: Al-Bukhary dan Muslim)

Diriwayatkan dari Sahal bin Saad: Sesungguhnya Nabi s.a.w. telahbersabda: Manusia (ummat Islam) masih dalam keadaan baik selama mentakjilkan (menyegerakan) berbuka. ( H.R.: Al-Bukhary dan Muslim)

Diriwayatakan dari Anas r.a., ia berkata: Rasulullah s.a.w. berbuka dengan makan beberapa ruthaab (kurma basah) sebelum solat, kalau tidak ada maka dengan kurma kering, kalau tidak ada maka dengan meneguk air beberapa teguk. (H.R.: Abu Daud dan Al-Hakiem)

Diriwayatkan dari Salman bin Amir, bahwa sesungguhnya Nabi saw.telah bersabda : Apabila salah seorang diantara kamu puasa hendaklah berbuka dengan kurma, bila tidak ada kurma hendaklah dengan air, sesungguhnya air itu bersih. ( H.R : Ahmad dan At-Tirmidzi)

Diriwayatkan dari Ibnu Umar : Adalah Nabi saw. selesai berbuka Beliau berdo'a (artinya) telah pergi rasa haus dan menjadi basah semua urat-urat dan pahala tetap ada Insya Allah. ( H.R : Ad-Daaruquthni dan Abu Daud hadits hasan)

Diriwayatkan dari Anas, ia berkata : Telah bersabda Rasulullah saw: Apabila makan malam telah disediakan, maka mulailah makan sebelum shalat Maghrib, janganlah mendahulukan shalat daripada makan malam itu ( yang sudah terhidang ). ( H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Anas bin Malik ra: Sesungguhnya Rasulullah saw.telah bersabda : Makan sahurlah kalian karena sesungguhnya makan sahur itu berkah. (H.R : Al-Bukhary )

Diriwayatkan dari Al-Miqdam bin Ma'di Yaqrib, dari Nabi saw.bersabda : Hendaklah kamu semua makan sahur, karena sahur adalah makanan yang penuh berkah. ( H.R : An-Nasa'i )

Diriwayatkan dari Zaid bin Tsabit t berkata : Kami bersahur bersama Rasulullah saw. kemudian kami bangkit untuk menunaikan shalat (Shubuh ). saya berkata : Berapa saat jarak antara keduanya ( antara waktu sahur dan waktu Shubuh )? Ia berkata : Selama orang membaca lima puluh ayat. ( H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Amru bin Maimun, ia berkata : Adalah para sahabat Muhammad saw. adalah orang yang paling menyegerakan berbuka dan melambatkan makan sahur. ( H.R : Al-Baihaqi )Telah bersabda Rasulullah saw: Apabila salah seorang di antara kamu mendengar adzan dan piring masih di tangannya janganlah diletakkan hendaklah ia menyelesaikan hajatnya ( makan/minum sahur ) daripadanya. (H.R : Ahmad dan Abu Daud dan Al-Hakiem )

Diriwayatkan dari Abu Usamah ra. ia berkata : Shalat telah di'iqamahkan, sedang segelas minuman masih di tangan Umar ra. beliau bertanya : Apakah ini boleh saya minum wahai Rasulullah ? Beliau r.a menjawab : ya, lalu ia meminumnya. ( H.R Ibnu Jarir )

Diriwayatkan dari Ibnu Abbas ra. ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw. orang yang paling dermawan dan beliau lebih dermawan lagi pada bulan Ramadhan ketika Jibril menemuinya, dan Jibril menemuinya pada setiap malam pada bulan Ramadhan untuk mentadaruskan beliau saw. al-qur'andan benar-benar Rasulullah saw. lebih dermawan tentang kebajikan (cepat berbuat kebaikan ) daripada angin yang dikirim.(HR Al-Bukhary )

Diriwayatkan dari Abu Hurairah, ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw. menggalakkan qiyamullail (shalat malam ) di bulan Ramadhan tanpa memerintahkan secara wajib, maka beliau bersabda : Barang siapa yangshalat malam di bulan Ramadhan karena beriman dan mengharapkan pahala dari Allah, maka diampuni baginya dosanya yang telah lalu. (H.R : Jama'ah )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. Sesungguhnya Nabi saw. apabila memasuki sepuluh hari terakhir ( bulan Ramadhan ) beliau benar-benar menghidupkan malam (untuk beribadah ) dan membangunkan istrinya (agar beribadah ) dengan mengencangkan ikatan sarungnya (tidak mengumpuli istrinya ).( H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah, ia berkata : Adalah Nabi saw. bersungguh-sungguh shalat malam pada sepuluh hari terakhir ( di bulanRamadhan ) tidak seperti kesungguhannya dalam bulan selainnya. (H.R : Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Abu salamah din Abdur Rahman, sesungguhnya iatelah bertanya kepada Aisyah ra: Bagaimana shalat malamnya Rasulullah saw di bulan Ramadhan ? maka ia menjawab : Rasulullah saw tidak pernah shalat malam lebih dari sebelas raka'at baik di bulan Ramadhan maupun di bulan lainnya, caranya : Beliau shalat empat raka'at jangan tanya baik dan panjangnya, kemudian shalat lagi empat raka'at jangan ditanya baik dan panjangnya, kemudian shalat tiga rakaat. ( H.R : Al-Bukhary,Muslim dan lainnya )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw. apabila bangun shalat malam, beliau membuka dengan shalat dua raka'at yang ringan, kemudian shalat delapan raka'at, kemudian shalat witir. ( H.R : Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Ibnu Umar ia berkata : Ada seorang laki-laki berdiri lalu ia berkata : Wahai Rasulullah bagaimana cara shalat malam ? Maka Rasulullah r. menjawab : Shalat malam itu dua raka'atdua raka'at. Apabila kamu khawatir masuk shalat Shubuh, maka berwitirlah satu raka'at. ( H.R : Jama'ah )

Dari Aisyah ra. ia berkata : Sesungguhnya Nabi saw shalat di masjid, lalu para sahabat shalat sesuai dengan shalat beliau ( bermakmum dibelakang ), lalu beliau shalat pada malam kedua dan para sahabat bermakmum dibelakangnya bertambah banyak, kemudian pada malam yang ketiga atau yang keempat mereka berkumpul, maka Rasulullah saw tidak keluar mengimami mereka. Setelah pagi hari beliau bersabda : Saya telah tahu apa yang kalian perbuat, tidak ada yang menghalangi aku untuk keluar kepada kalian ( untuk mengimami shalat ) melainkan aku khawatir shalat malam ini difardhukan atas kalian. Ini terjadi pada bulan Ramadhan. (H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim )

Dari Ubay bin Ka'ab t. ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw. shalat witir dengan membaca : Sabihisma Rabbikal A'la ) dan ( Qul ya ayyuhalkafirun) dan (Qulhu wallahu ahad ). ( H.R : Ahmad, Abu Daud,Annasa'i dan Ibnu Majah )

Diriwayatkan dari Hasan bin Ali t. ia berkata : Rasulullah saw. telah mengajarkan kepadaku beberapa kata yang aku baca dalam qunut witir : ( artinya ) Ya Allah berilah aku petunjuk beserta orang-orang yang telah engkau beri petunjuk, berilah aku kesehatan yang sempurna beserta orang yang telah engkau beri kesehatan yang sempurna, pimpinlah aku beserta orang yang telah Engkau pimpin, Berkatilah untukku apa yang telah Engkau berikan, peliharalah aku dari apa yang telah Engkau tentukan. Maka sesungguhnya Engkaulah yang memutuskan dan tiada yang dapat memutuskan atas Engkau, bahwa tidak akan hina siapa saja yang telah Engkau pimpin dan tidak akan mulia siapa saja yang Engkau musuhi. Maha agung Engkau wahai Rabb kami dan Maha Tinggi Engkau. ( H.R : Ahmad, Abu Daud, Annasa'i, At-Tirmidzi dan Ibnu Majah )

Dari Abu Hurairah ra. bahwa Nabi saw. bersabda : Barang siapa yang shalat malam menepati lailatul qadar, maka diampuni dosanya yang telah lalu. ( H.R : Jama'ah )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. Sesungguhnya Rasulullah saw. telah bersabda : berusahalah untuk mencari lailatul qadar pada sepuluh malam terakhir. (H.R : Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Ibnu Umar ra. ia berkata : Dinampakkan dalam mimpi seorang laki-laki bahwa lailatul qadar pada malam kedua puluh tujuh, maka Rasulullah saw. bersabda : Sayapun bermimpi seperti mimpimu, (ditampakkan pada sepuluh malam terakhir, maka carilah ia ( lailatulqadar ) pada malam-malam ganjil. ( H.R : Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. ia berkata : Saya berkata kepada Rasulullah saw. Ya Rasulullah, bagaimana pendapat tuan bila saya mengetahui lailatul qadar,apa yang saya harus baca pada malam itu ?Beliau bersabda : Bacalah ( artinya ) Yaa Allah sesungguhnya Engkau maha pemberi ampun, Engkau suka kepada keampunan maka ampunilah daku. (H.R : At-Tirmidzi dan Ahmad )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw mengamalkan i'tikaf pada sepuluh hari terakhir pada bulan Ramadhan sampai beliau diwafatkan oleh Allah Azza wa Jalla. ( H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw. apabila hendak beri'tikaf, beliau shalat shubuh kemudian memasukit empat i'tikafnya.......... ( H.R :Jama'ah kecuali At-Tirmidzi )

Diriwayatkan dari Aisyah ra. ia berkata : Adalah Rasulullah saw.apabila beri'tikaf , beliau mendekatkan kepalanya kepadaku, maka aku menyisirnya, dan adalah beliau tidak masuk ke rumah kecuali karena untuk memenuhi hajat manusia ( buang air, mandi dll... ) ( H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim ) Allah ta'ala berfirman : ( artinya ) Janganlah kalian mencampuri mereka( istri-istri kalian ) sedang kalian dalam keadaan i'tikafdalam masjid. Itulah batas-batas ketentuan Allah, maka jangan didekati... ( Al- aqarah : 187 )

Diriwayatkan dari Abu Hurairah ra. ia berkata : Telah bersabda Rasulullah saw: Setiap amal anak bani Adam adalah untuknya kecuali puasa, ia adalah untukku dan aku yang memberikan pahala dengannya. Dan sesungguhnya puasa itu adalah benteng pertahanan, pada hari ketika kamu puasa janganlah berbuat keji , jangan berteriak-teriak (pertengkaran ), apabila seorang memakinya sedang ia puasa maka hendaklah ia katakan :" sesungguhnya saya sedang puasa" . Demi jiwa Muhammad yang ada ditanganNya sungguh bau busuknya mulut orang yang sedang puasa itu lebih wangi disisi Allah pada hari kiamat daripada kasturi. Dan bagi orang yang puasa ada dua kegembiraan, apabila ia berbuka ia gembira dengan bukanya dan apabila ia berjumpa dengan Rabbnya ia gembira karena puasanya. ( H.R : Al-Bukhary dan Muslim)

Diriwayatkan dari Abu Hurairah ia berkata : Sesungguhnya Nabi saw.telah bersabda : Barang siapa yang tidak meninggalkan perkataan bohong dan amalan kebohongan, maka tidak ada bagi Allah hajat (untuk menerima ) dalam hal ia meninggalkan makan dan minumnya. (H.R: Jama'ah Kecuali Muslim ) Maksudnya Allah tidak merasa perlu memberi pahala puasanya.Bahwa sesungguhnya Nabi saw. bersabda kepada seorang wanita Anshar yang sering di panggil Ummu Sinan : Apa yang menghalangimu untuk melakukan haji bersama kami ? Ia menjawab : Keledai yang ada pada kami yang satu dipakai oleh ayahnya si fulan (suaminya ) untuk berhaji bersama anaknya sedang yang lain di pakai untuk memberi minum anak-anak kami. Nabi pun bersabda lagi : Umrah di bulan Ramadhan sama dengan mengerjakan haji atau haji bersamaku. ( H.R :Muslim)Rasulullah sw. bersabda : Apabila datang bulan Ramadhan kerjakanlah umrah karena umrah di dalamnya (bulan Ramadhan ) setingkat dengan haji. ( H.R : Muslim)

KESIMPULANAyat dan hadits-hadits tersebut di atas memberi pelajaran kepada kita bahwa dalam mengamalkan puasa Ramadhan kita perlu melaksanakan adab-adab sbb :Berbuka apabila sudah masuk waktu Maghrib. ( dalil : 6 )

Sunnah berbuka adalah sbb :Disegerakan yakni sebelum melaksanakan shalat Maghrib dengan makanan yang ringan seperti kurma, air saja, setelah itu baru melaksanakan shalat. ( dalil : 2,3 dan 4 )

Tetapi apabila makan malam sudah dihidangkan, maka terus dimakan, jangan shalat dahulu. ( dalil : 6 )

Setelah berbuka berdo'a dengan do'a sbb : Artinya : Telah hilangrasa haus, dan menjadi basah semua urat-urat dan pahala tetap wujudinsya Allah. ( dalil : 5 )

Makan sahur. ( dalil : 7 dan 8 )

Adab-adab sahur : Dilambatkan sampai akhir malam mendekati Shubuh. (dalil 9 dan 10 )

Apabila pada tengah makan atau minum sahur lalu mendengar adzanShubuh, maka sahur boleh diteruskan sampai selesai, tidak perlu dihentikan di tengah sahur karena sudah masuk waktu Shubuh. ( dalil11 dan 12 )

Imsak tidak ada sunnahnya dan tidak pernah diamalkan pada zaman sahabat maupun tabi'in. Lebih bersifat dermawan (banyak memberi, banyak bershadaqah, banyak menolong) dan banyak membaca al-qur'an ( dalil : 13 )

Menegakkan shalat malam / shalat Tarawih dengan berjama'ah. Dan shalat Tarawih ini lebih digiatkan lagi pada sepuluh malam terakhir(20 hb. sampai akhir Ramadhan). (dalil : 14,15 dan 16 )

Cara shalatTarawih adalah :Dengan berjama'ah. ( dalil : 19 )

Tidak lebih dari sebelas raka'at yakni salam tiap dua raka'at dikerjakan empat kali, atau salam tiap empat raka'at dikerjakan dua kali dan ditutup dengan witir tiga raka'at. ( dalil : 17 )

Dibuka dengan dua raka'at yang ringan. ( dalil : 18 )

Bacaan dalam witir : Raka'at pertama : Sabihisma Rabbika. Roka'tkedua : Qul yaa ayyuhal kafirun. Raka'at ketiga : Qulhuwallahu ahad.( dalil : 21 )

Membaca do'a qunut dalam shalat witir. ( dalil 22 )

Berusaha menepati lailatul qadar pada sepuluh malam terakhir,terutama pada malam-malam ganjil. Bila dirasakan menepati lailatulqadar hendaklah lebih giat beribadah dan membaca : Yaa AllahEngkaulah pengampun, suka kepada keampunan maka ampunilah aku. (dalil : 25 dan 26 )

Mengerjakan i'tikaf pada sepuluh malam terakhir. (dalil : 27 )

Cara i'tikaf :Setelah shalat Shubuh lalu masuk ke tempat i'tikaf di masjid. (dalil 28 )

Tidak keluar dari tempat i'tikaf kecuali ada keperluan yangmendesak. ( dalil : 29 )

Tidak mencampuri istri dimasa i'tikaf. ( dalil : 30)

Mengerjakan umrah. ( dalil : 33 dan 34 )

Menjauhi perkataan dan perbuatan keji dan menjauhi pertengkaran.(dalil : 31 dan 32 )

Thursday, September 13, 2007

Puasa

Pengertian Puasa

Puasa ertinya menahan diri dari makan dan minum dan dari segala perbuatan yang boleh membatalkan puasa, mulai terbit fajar hinggalah terbenam matahari.

Puasa Wajib

Puasa bulan Ramadan, puasa kifarat dan puasa nazar


Puasa Sunat

1. Puasa enam hari pada bulan Syawal
2. Puasa hari Arafah
3. Puasa hari Asyura pada 10 Muharam
4. Puasa bulan Syaaban
5. Puasa Isnin dan Khamis
6. Puasa tengah bulan iaitu 13, 14, 15 pada tiap-tiap bulan qamaria (tahun Hijrah)

Puasa Makruh

1. Puasa yang terus menerus sepanjang masa
2. Tidak termasuk dua hari raya dan hari tasyriq

Puasa Haram

1. Puasa pada hari raya pertama Idil Fitri
2. Puasa pada hari raya pertama Haji
3. Puasa tiga hari sesudah hari raya haji atau hari tasyriq iaitu pada 11, 12 dan 13 Zulhijjah

Syarat Wajib Puasa

1. Berakal
2. Akhir Baligh (Cukup Umur)
3. Kuat atau mampu mengerjakan puasa

Syarat Sah Puasa

1. Islam
2. Mumayyiz ( dapat membezakan yang baik dan buruk
3. Suci daripada haid dan nifas
4. Dalam waktu yang dibolehkan berpuasa

Rukun Puasa

1. Berniat - Pada malam selama bulan Ramadan hendaklan berniat di dalam hati bahawa kita akan mengerjakan puasa pada hari esok
2. Menahan diri daripada segala yang membatalkan semenjak terbit fajar sampai terbenam matahari

Perkara Yang Membatalkan Puasa

1. Makan dan minum dengan sengaja
2. Muntah dengan sengaja
3. Bersetubuh tanpa keluar mani pada siang hari bulan Ramadan
4. Keluar darah haid atau nifas
5. Gila
6. Keluar mani akibat bersetubuh dengan perempuan. Tetapi keluar mani kerana bermimpi tidak membatalkan puasa

Orang Yang Diizinkan Berbuka Atau Tidak Berpuasa

1. Orang yang sakit
2. Orang yang dalam perjalanan jarak jauh melebihi 52 batu atau 80.64 KM
3. Orang tua yang sudah lemah
4. Orang yang hamil dan orang yang menyusukan anak


Lafaz niat Puasa Ramadan yang lengkap adalah:



Ertinya: “Sahaja aku puasa esok hari menunaikan fardhu Ramadhan pada tahun ini kerana Allah Taala.”

Lafaz niat sebulan Puasa Ramadan adalah:

Ertinya: "Sahaja aku puasa bulan Ramadan seluruhnya pada tahun ini kerana Allah Taala".

Saturday, September 01, 2007

Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad


Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (b. December 20, 1925) is the former Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the post from 1981 to 2003. During his term in office he was credited for engineering Malaysia's rapid modernization and promoting "Asian values". He is also known for his sharp criticisms of foreign powers. He has also been criticised for being antisemitic.

EARLY LIFE

Born in Alor Star, the capital of the northern state of Kedah, Mahathir said in his autobiography that he had Indian ancestry (from his father), with its origins tracing back to Kerala in India, while his mother was a Kedah-born Malay. Mahathir, however, considers himself to be a "full Malay", in line with Article 160 of the Constitution. Under Article 153 of the Constitution, Malays are granted particular rights not available to other citizens.

During World War II, he sold pisang goreng (banana fritters) to supplement his family income in the Japanese occupation of Malaya.

Mahathir first attended a Malay vernacular school before continuing his education at the Sultan Abdul Hamid College in Alor Star. Mahathir then attended the King Edward VII Medical College in Singapore, where he edited a medical student magazine called The Cauldron; he also contributed to the The Straits Times newspaper anonymously under the nickname "Che Det". Mahathir was also President of the Muslim Society in the college.[1] In 1953, Mahathir entered the then Malayan government service as a medical officer upon graduation. He married Dr. Siti Hasmah Mohd Ali—a former classmate in college—on August 5, 1956, and left the government service in 1957 to set up his own practice in Alor Star. Mahathir's practice thrived, allowing him to own by 1959 a Pontiac Catalina and a Chinese chauffeur (at the time most chauffeurs were Malay, owing to Chinese economic dominance [citation needed]). Some critics have suggested this foreshadowed a later hallmark of Mahathir's politics, which focused on the "cultivation of such emblems of power".[2]

Active in politics since 1945, beginning with his involvement in the Anti-Malayan Union Campaign, Mahathir joined the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) upon its inception in 1946. As State Party Chairman, and Chairman of the Political Committee, he inadvertently angered some quarters with his proposal that the selection of candidates be based on certain qualifications for the 1959 general election. Hurt by accusations that he was scheming to put up candidates who were strongly allied to him, Mahathir refused to take part in the national election that year.

In the third general election of 1964, Mahathir was elected Member of Parliament for Kota Setar Selatan[3] defeating the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party's (PAS) candidate with a 60.2% majority. He lost the seat in the following general election in 1969 by a mere 989 votes to PAS's candidate, Haji Yusoff Rawa[4] after he categorically declared that he did not need Chinese votes to win.[5]

Following the race riots of May 13, 1969 in the May 13 Incident, Mahathir was sacked from the UMNO Supreme Council on 12 July, following his widespread distribution to the public of his letter to Tunku Abdul Rahman, the then Prime Minister. In his letter, he had criticised the manner in which the Tunku had handled the country's administration. Mahathir was subsequently relieved of his party membership on 26 September.[4]

While in the political wilderness, Mahathir wrote his book, "The Malay Dilemma"[4] in which he sought to explain the causes of the May 13 Incident in Kuala Lumpur and the reasons for the Malays' lack of economic progress within their own country. He then proposed a politico-economic solution in the form of "constructive protection", worked out after careful consideration of the effects of heredity and environmental factors on the Malay race. The book, published in 1970, was promptly banned by the Tunku Abdul Rahman government.[4] However, some of the proposals in this book had been used by Tun Abdul Razak, the second Prime Minister, in his "New Economic Policy" (N.E.P.) that was principally geared towards affirmative action economic programs to address the nation's economic disparity between the Malays and the non-Malays. The ban on his book was eventually lifted after Mahathir became Prime Minister in 1981.[4]

Mahathir rejoined UMNO on 7 March 1972, and was appointed as Senator in 1973. He relinquished the senatorship post in 1974 in order to contest in the general elections where he was returned unopposed in the constituency of Kubang Pasu, and was appointed as the Minister of Education.[4] In 1975, he became one of the three vice-presidents of U.M.N.O., after winning the seat by 47 votes. Tun Hussein Onn appointed Mahathir as Deputy Prime Minister on 15 September 1978, and in a Cabinet reshuffle, appointed him concurrently as the Minister of Trade and Industry.

Mahathir became the Prime Minister of Malaysia on 10 July 1981 when Tun Hussein Onn stepped down due to health reasons. After 22 years in office, Mahathir retired on October 31, 2003, making him one of Asia's longest-serving political leaders. Upon his retirement on 31 October 2003, Mahathir was awarded a "Tun"-ship, Malaysia's highest civilian honour.

POLITICAL MACHINE

After his twenty-two year rule, Mahathir is still seen as a political "strongman".[citation needed] As Prime Minister, he was often criticised by the west for his authoritarian policies and use of state power to suppress opponents via the media, the judiciary and law enforcement agencies.

In 1983 and 1991, he took on the federal and state monarchies, removing the royal veto and royal immunity from prosecution.[2] Many Malaysians, however, were pleased with this, as there had been frequent cases of abuse of power by the royal families.[citation needed] Prior to this amendment of the law, royal assent was required in order for any bill to pass into law. With effect of this amendment, approval by parliament could be legally considered as royal assent after a period of 30 days, notwithstanding the views of the monarchs. However, this only applied to secular laws and the various kings continued to enjoy the right to make Islamic law in their own jurisdictions.

In 1988 when the future of the ruling party UMNO was about to be decided in the Supreme Court (it had just been deregistered as an illegal society in the High Court), he was believed to have engineered the dismissal of the Lord President of the Supreme Court, Salleh Abas, and three other supreme court justices who tried to block the misconduct hearings. The series of incidents in 1988 has been widely viewed as the end of the judiciary's independence from the executive.

In 1998 attention around the globe was focused on Malaysia when the government brought sodomy and abuse of power charges against the former finance minister and deputy prime minister, Anwar Ibrahim. Anwar claimed that he was being set up because he had tried to turn corruption and nepotism into major political issues, with Mahathir and his associates as the targets. Mahathir's supporters believe that it was Anwar's attempt to replace Mahathir as the Prime Minister, upon seeing the downfall of Indonesia's Suharto, that has led him to be removed from politics altogether. It was Mahathir after all, who had groomed and placed him there as his deputy.[citation needed]

At the UMNO meeting in June 1998, Anwar's supporters had planned a sneak attack on the prime minister, hitting him in the area where they consider him most vulnerable: corruption. Mahathir fired back, reading from a prepared list, the names of all ruling-party members who had benefited from government contracts. The list included some of Anwar's relatives. The corruption talk was quickly shelved.

Many observers also saw the engineering of Anwar's dismissal as the result of the triumph of the secular corporate nationalist old guard over the younger "green" or Islamist faction within UMNO, created after the popular Islamic youth leader, Anwar, had been brought into the government by Mahathir.[citation needed]

The trial itself was a tawdry spectacle.[citation needed] The government included the statements of the purported "victims" of Anwar's sodomy attacks, evidence that was widely considered to be tainted.[citation needed] Furthermore, the prosecution was unable to accurately decide on a date that the alleged acts of anal sex had occurred - the government originally alleged that a sodomy had occurred inside a building that had not been constructed at the time of the alleged event. Mahathir himself went as far as to go on television to declare Anwar guilty of sodomy and homosexual acts, even as the trial still was underway. There was widespread condemnation of the trail from human rights groups and the Malaysia bar association, who expressed serious doubts about its fairness. Mahathir then ordered a crackdown on the media and opposition parties who protested the trial. Anwar Ibrahim was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption and nine years prison for sodomy, to be served consecutively.[8][9]

The Anwar crisis sparked protests by some Malaysians, of all ethnic groups, and some of Anwar's supporters from UMNO regrouped around the intellectual-Muslim "Parti Keadilan Nasional" (National Justice Party). It garnered widespread support from Malaysians, though "Parti keAdilan" could only win only five parliamentary seats in the 1999 elections as Mahathir frequently used his authority and intimidation to stifle its organization. In the subsequent 2004 elections, with Anwar's release and conviction overturned, the party was nearly wiped out, with Wan Azizah, the wife of Anwar, winning one seat by the narrowest of margins, mainly based on sympathetic votes, and thereon ceased to be relevant.

UMNO under Mahathir developed a feudalistic tradition whereby political factions battling to ensure the growth of so-called 'warlords' would gladly throw UMNO into chaos, rather than see their prominent champion miss out on appointment to plum posts.[citation needed] The Anwar debacle was an example of this, as was an earlier rebellion by UMNO strongman, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah, who broke away to form the "Semangat 46" (the Spirit of '46) party (now defunct).

UMNO heads were seen by opposition supporters as corrupt politicians more focused on power and economic gain, as Mahathir was only interested in their total loyalty.[citation needed] PAS leveraged this into a selling point by promising a clean, Islamic administration. Despite this, PAS only captured the state of Terengganu in the 1999 elections, and failed to retain it in the next election. This was largely seen to be due to PAS' fundamentalist Islamic policies, as they had introduced Islamic sharia laws into Terengganu and their other stronghold, Kelantan. These laws included banning various forms of entertainment, and mandatory wearing of the headscarf for female Muslim civil servants. Many political analysts felt that this had prevented PAS from making major gains, keeping the reins of power firmly in Mahathir's hands, as the non-Malay voters were turned off by the perceived religious fundamentalism of PAS. Also, Mahathir remained tremendously popular among many Malaysians, and the third world.[citation needed] He is known for being a man of few words,[citation needed] and for his somewhat successful policies in steering Malaysia towards development and economic prosperity. In the Asian financial crisis of 1998, IMF has prescribed a recovery package for Malaysia, but Mahathir defied international pressure, his then Deputy Anwar Ibrahim, and conventional wisdom, in rejecting the package. Though economic prosperity has been mixed since then, Mahathir argued that Malaysia's recovery was relatively faster and better, as compared to many other Asian countries affected. After the financial crisis, the IMF and World Bank acknowledged that Mahathir's approach had worked, and if Anwar's policies had been carried out, Malaysia would have ended up like Argentina.[citation needed]

Ministries were allotted to all component parties of the Barisan Nasional. Even non-Malay parties obtained the ministerships of key ministries such as Health (MCA), Transport (MCA), and the Works Ministry (MIC). Certain ministries were also shared with one party traditionally getting the ministers post and another party getting the deputy ministership. This was standard coalition politics as with all other coalition governments who wanted to ensure everyone got a slice of the cake.

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

In 1975 Mahathir was appointed Minister of Education. He had always believed in the need for "education for the masses", with greater emphasis on maths and science, at high school level, in order to achieve his dream of a developed Malaysia. He continued to strongly promote his agenda of quantity-and-quality higher education during his term as prime minister.

In those days, English, Chinese and Tamil-medium schools were fully run by private and missionary organizations. Students from these school sat for the respective overseas examinations set by the board of school committees and associations. For instance, Overseas Cambridge School Certificate (OSC) was set for English schools. Under the former Prime Minister's order, he drafted the KBSM syllabus in order to make Malay a compulsory subject to be taught in all subjects in these schools. Overseas examinations were subsequently abolished one after another throughout the years. Schools which converted to the national type received heavy fundings from the government. Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) and Sijil Rendah Pelajaran (SRP) were fully introduced as national examinations.

In order to cater for the lower income indigenous population, boarding schools were promoted and constructed. Through government scholarships, tens of thousands of students were sent yearly to universities in the U.S., U.K., and Australia, western-type countries that Mahathir aspired to achieve par development with. Middle- and higher-income groups from non-Bumiputera Malaysians who were unable to get a place in the local universities, due to the restrictive quota system and limited government scholarships, also independently sent their children to these universities. This has led Malaysia to have the third largest number of students going to western-type countries to pursue higher education, after China and India.[citation needed] Till today, education is a major source of Malaysia's expenditure,[citation needed] something that the current administration is trying to remedy. After years of sending students abroad, Malaysian post-graduate and industrial research and development has still not shown any notable progress.[citation needed]

In 1980, education quota was introduced as part of the National Economic Policy. Mahathir who became the acting prime minister, introduced the quota system to all economic sectors in Malaysia including the education system, whereby a designated percentage of undergraduate seats of higher institutions were reserved for Bumiputra (natives) citizens. This has led to a large number of highly competitive non-bumiputra applicants being unable to secure admission to institutions of higher learning. These applicants resort to the neighbouring or foreign countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada and the western countries mentioned above.

Towards his later years, Mahathir promoted the liberalization of university start-ups, leading to branch campuses being built or the formation of permanent tie-ups with some of the most prestigious universities in the world. Amongst others, these led to the construction of

1. The University of Nottingham in Malaysia (in partnership with the University of Nottingham, U.K.)

2. Malaysia University of Science and Technology (M.U.S.T.), in partnership with M.I.T. (U.S.) and Motorola)

3. Monash University Malaysia (in partnership with Monash University, Australia)

4. Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak Campus (in partnership with Curtin University of Technology, Australia)

Private companies with a long running history in Malaysia like Intel and AMD were also encouraged to set up, and run partnerships and/or higher education centres and centres of excellence.

In 2003 after more than 20 years in post, he commented that non-bumiputra students excel far ahead of bumiputra students in academic qualifications. He soon introduced meritocracy by gradually lowering down the quota percentage reserved each year for the intake of bumiputra applicants in higher institutions to encourage fair competitions. In the year before his retirement, he attempted to remedy this problem by announcing that Mathematics and Science subjects must be taught in English in all primary and secondary schools. As a result of this rapid transition, the new school textbooks contain numerous typographical errors, and school teachers who are not fluent in English suffer difficulties in their teachings. This also subsequently caused some resentment among the Chinese education community and the hard-line Malays

FOREIGN RELATIONS

During Mahathir's tenure in office, Malaysia's relationship with the West was turbulent.[citation needed] Early during his tenure, a small disagreement with the United Kingdom over university tuition fees sparked off a boycott of all British goods led by Mahathir, in what became known as the "Buy British Last" campaign. It also led to a search for development models in Asia, most notably Japan. This was the beginning of his famous "Look East Policy". Although the dispute was later resolved by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Mahathir continued to emphasize Asian development models over contemporary Western ones.[citation needed] Although Mahathir has managed to find solutions to many problems in Malaysia, ironically, he has managed to create more problems diplomatically, as seen with a great number of countries.[citation needed] These problems are usually small ones which crop up from personal matters, yet Mahathir always brings the Malaysian government into play, such as the imposition of boycotts.

RETIREMENT

In 2002 a tearful[17] Mahathir announced his resignation to a surprised UMNO General Assembly. He was persuaded to stay on for a further eighteen months, in a carefully planned handover that ended in October 2003. On his retirement, he was granted Malaysia's highest honour, which entitles him to the title Tun from his original Datuk Seri. Since retirement, he has been serving as an advisor to the Malaysian national oil company Petronas and the Malaysian national car company Proton, an original core national project initiated by Mahathir during his premiership. He is also the head of the Perdana Leadership Foundation, a foundation whose aim is to preserve, develop and spread materials regarding or written by previous Malaysian Prime Ministers. While he has retired from all political offices, he remains very outspoken regarding national policies.

Shortly before leaving office, Mahathir sparked off a fierce controversy when at the 57-member "Organization of the Islamic Conference" (OIC) summit, he claimed that "the Jews rule this world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them".[18] However, he also mentioned:" We also know that not all non-Muslims are against us. Some are well disposed towards us. Some even see our enemies as their enemies. Even among the Jews there are many who do not approve of what the Israelis are doing."

His comments were widely criticized in the West, but the issue was ignored in Asia and Islamic countries, which felt that his remark had been taken out of context. Mahathir later defended his remarks, saying: "I am not anti-Semitic ... I am against those Jews who kill Muslims and the Jews who support the killers of Muslims." He tagged the West as "anti-Muslim", for double standards by "protecting Jews while allowing others to insult Islam." also mentioning “But when somebody condemns the Muslims, calls my prophet, "terrorist", did the European Union say anything?".[19] In 2004, he stated that both Bush and Kerry avoided certain acts due to concerns that they would "annoy the Jewish group." However, his comments does not stop international criticism especially from United States and Israel.

In 2005 Mahathir brought up the issue of excessive awarding of Approved Permits (APs) to import cars, stating that they were creating too much competition for Proton, causing friction between him and Rafidah Aziz, the Minister for International Trade and Industry, who oversaw the awarding of APs. His successor, Abdullah, then announced that a National Automotive Policy (NAP) would be created to appropriately handle the issue. Later, when touching on the issue, Mahathir lamented the government's majority in Parliament, saying, "I believe that the country should have a strong government but not too strong. A two-thirds majority like I enjoyed when I was prime minister is sufficient but a 90% majority is too strong....We need an opposition to remind us if we are making mistakes. When you are not opposed you think everything you do is right".[20]

CRITICISM OF HIS SUCCESSOR

In 2006 Mahathir's relationship with his successor started to get strained. In a press conference on 7 June 2006 at the Perdana Leadership Foundation, which he heads, Mahathir said that Abdullah Ahmad Badawi was not his first choice as successor but it was the current Deputy Prime Minister, Najib Tun Razak, instead. He said that he felt hurt by allegations that he "finished all the government's money, and that the government was bankrupt" because of the mega-projects initiated by him during his tenure as prime minister.[23] Mahathir added that he has "...a habit of choosing the wrong people" when he was answering the question whether Abdullah had stabbed him in the back.[23] He has also criticised the present government's decision to scrap the plan to replace Malaysia's side of the Johor-Singapore Causeway. In his opinion, Malaysia does not need to seek the approval to build a bridge on its own soil. This and other such issues have led many to believe that UMNO is under the threat of splitting into Mahathir and Badawi factions. A statement was issued by UMNO to reassure the public that they wholeheartedly supported Badawi, although as of yet, no stand has been taken over the issue of Mahathir's membership in the party. Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Nazri Aziz, suggested that Mahathir "wants to force him (Abdullah) to quit. He needs to be told he is no longer Prime Minister. His campaign is not for the sake of the country but for himself."[24]

To make his voice heard, Mahathir decided to bid to become a delegate from Kubang Pasu for the 2006 UMNO general assembly. This move, if successful, would bring great chagrin to Abdullah who seemed to use every form of censorship available to shut Mahathir up. He failed in his bid to be elected as a representative which is surprising given the fact that Kubang Pasu is his stronghold for over three decades.[citation needed] Later, an angry Mahathir claimed that the "establishment" (in reference to the present government) were doing everything in their power including, but not limited to using government machine that is normally reserved for general elections, to ensure that he didn't get elected. Mahathir even went as far as to allege — albeit, without proof — that the interested party paid RM200 for every vote casted against him. Mahathir also challenged the government to throw him in jail if the government wanted him to shut his mouth.

On, 22 October 2006, Mahathir had a private meeting with Abdullah, in which he voiced his dissatisfactions face-to-face for the first time with Abdullah. This meeting was highly anticipated by members of UMNO and other Malaysians to be an opportunity to narrow the differences between both of them.

However, Mahathir continued his criticisms of Abdullah after the meeting, saying that he was not satisfied with Abdullah's answers to his views.[25]

In a press conference after the meeting, Mahathir revealed one of his dissatisfactions; he felt that his civil liberties to voice his opinions and meeting with people were curtailed by the government. This is a quote from the press conference on this topic.

And I pointed out to him that firstly, this has become a police state. Because every time anybody invites me to give a talk, they would be called up by the police and warned, called up by the police and told to withdraw the invitation. Someone was not allowed to hold any meeting at all which involves me. This happened to many people. They were very shy to tell me about it but they were called up by the police and of course they were also called up by the mentri besar as well... But I consider this a police state. And I consider also that my civic right has been taken away from me because I have every right to talk to Umno people, university people, civil servants and that’s my right.

Mahathir also voiced certain conducts of Abdullah and his relatives (before and after Abdullah became Prime Minister) that would amount to corruption although Mahathir did not explicitly accuse Abdullah of that. Mahathir expressed his disappointment regarding Abdullah's role in the oil-for-food programme with Iraq; Abdullah's name was listed as a beneficiary in a report published by the US government regarding the programme. Abdullah's son-in-law, Khairy Jamaluddin, and his son had also been accused by Mahathir of offering contracts to their connections, which amounts to corruption.

Mahathir had also criticised Abdullah's handling of the Approved Permits (AP) issue, expressing his surprise that Rafidah Aziz was still retained as a Cabinet member although two people on the list of persons issued with highest number of APs were linked to Rafidah

Tun Hussein Onn


Tun Hussein bin Dato' Onn (February 12, 1922—May 29, 1990) who is of 3/4 Malay and 1/4 Turkish (of Circassians extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. He was granted the soubriquet Bapa Perpaduan (Father of Unity). He was born in Johor Bahru, Johor on February 12, 1922 to Dato Onn Jaafar and Datin Halimah Hussein.

EARLY LIFE

Tun Hussein received his early education in Singapore and at the English College in Johor Bahru. After leaving school, he joined the Johor Military Forces as a cadet in 1940 and was sent a year later to the Indian Military Academy in Dehradun, India. Upon completion of his training, he was absorbed into the Indian Army and served in the Middle East when the Second World War broke. After the war, his vast experience prompted the British to employ him as an instructor at the Malayan Police Recruiting and Training Centre in Rawalpindi.

Tun Hussein came back to Malaysia in 1945 and was appointed Commandant of the Johor Bahru Police Depot. The following year he joined the Malaya Civil Service as an assistant administrative officer in Segamat, Johor. He was later posted to the state of Selangor, becoming Klang and Kuala Selangor’s district officer..

ENTERING POLITICS

Tun Hussein, who came from a family with deep nationalistic spirit and political roots, resigned from the civil service to go into politics. In 1949, he became the first youth chief of UMNO (United Malays National Organization), a party his father helped established. In 1950, he was elected the UMNO secretary general. Tun Hussein however left UMNO in 1951 to join his father in forming the Independence of Malaya Party (IMP).

With IMP losing momentum, Tun Hussein went to London to study law at Lincoln's Inn, qualifying as a Barrister-at-Law. He came back as a certified lawyer and practiced in Kuala Lumpur.

RISE TO POWER

Tun Hussein returned to politics in 1968 after being persuaded by the then Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak to rejoin UMNO. He stood and won the general elections in 1969 and was appointed as the education minister. Tun Hussein’s meteoric rise continued when on August 13, 1973 he succeeded the late Tun Dr Ismail as the Deputy Prime Minister. On January 15, 1976 he was appointed as Prime Minister of Malaysia after the death of Tun Razak. [1]

Tun Hussein was renowned for stressing on the issue of unity through policies aimed at rectifying economic imbalances between the communities. For instance, April 20, 1981 saw the National Unit Trust Scheme being launched. He also gave serious consideration to the concept of Rukun Tetangga (a neighbourhood watch scheme) and the fight against the drug menace.

Tun Hussein, who was married to Toh Puan Suhaila Tan Sri Haji Mohd Noah, for 42 years underwent a coronary bypass in early 1981. On July 17 the same year, he retired from active politics and relinquished his prime minister post due to what was officially stated to be health concerns. He was succeeded by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad.

POST-RETIREMENT

After his retirement as Prime Minister he continued to contribute to welfare organizations. He was instrumental in the setting up of the Tun Hussein Onn Eye Hospital. He was also an advisor to Petronas the country’s oil company and Chairman of Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS).

During the 1987 UMNO leadership crisis, Tun Hussein fell out with Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, supporting Team B along with Tunku Abdul Rahman. Tun Hussein along with the Tunku, henceforth, became a strident critic of the Mahathir administration and died without having rejoined UMNO.

He died on the 29th of May 1990 in San Francisco, at the age of 68. He had two sons and four daughters. He is buried in Makam Pahlawan (Heroes Mausoleum) near Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur.

Tun Hussein Onn was looked upon as being very sincere in his struggle for racial unity and had a reputation of being firm against anyone that tried to create racial unrest in the country and it was due to this, that he was known as 'Father of Unity'.

Hussein's son, Dato' Seri Hishammuddin Bin Tun Hussein, became the Education Minister of Malaysia on March 30, 2004.

On the 17 September 2005, Hussein Onn's eldest daughter Datin Roqiyah Hanim, died at the age of 56 from breast cancer in Kuala Lumpur.

Tun Abdul Razak


Tun Abdul Razak bin Haji Dato' Hussein Al-Haj (March 11, 1922-January 14, 1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976. Born in Pulau Keladi, Pahang on March 11, 1922, Tun Razak is the only child to Dato' Hussein bin Mohd Taib and Hajah Teh Fatimah bt Daud.

Of aristocratic descent, Abdul Razak studied at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. After joining the Malay Administrative Service in 1939, he was awarded a scholarship to study at Raffles College in Singapore in 1940. His studies at the college ceased with the onset of the Second World War. During the war he helped organize the Wataniah resistance movement in Pahang

After the Second World War, Tun Razak left for Britain in 1947 to study law. In 1950 he received a law degree and qualified as barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. During his student days in England, Tun Razak was a member of the British Labour Party and a prominent student leader of the Kesatuan Melayu Great Britain (Malay Association of Great Britain). He also formed the Malayan Forum, an organisation for Malayan students to discuss their country's political issues.

Upon his return, Tun Razak joined the Malayan Civil Service. Owing to his political caliber, he became the youth chief for United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). Two years later, he worked as the Assistant State Secretary of Pahang and in February 1955, at just 33 years of age, became Pahang's Chief Minister. He stood in and won the country's first general elections in July 1955 and was appointed as the Education Minister. Tun Razak was also a member of the February 1956 mission to London to seek the independence of Malaya from the British.

After the general elections in 1959, he became the Minister of Rural Development in addition to holding the portfolios of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence. His achievements include formulating the development policy known as the Red Book. On September 1970, Tun Razak succeeded Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra as the Prime Minister of Malaysia.

After the May 13 Incident in 1969, his faction in UMNO overthrew Tunku Abdul Rahman and imposed a State of Emergency, ruling by decree until 1970. On September 1970, Tun Razak succeeded Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra as the Prime Minister of Malaysia.

Tun Razak is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP) in 1971. He and the "second generation" of Malay politicians saw the need to tackle vigorously the economic and social disparities which fuelled racial antagonism. The MNEP set two basics goals - to reduce and eventually eradicate poverty, and to reduce and eventually eradicate identification of economic function with race.

Tun Razak set up the National Front on January 1, 1973 to replace the ruling Alliance Party. He increased the membership of its parties and coalitions in an effort to establish "Ketahanan Nasional" (National Strength) through political stability.

Due in part to leukemia, Abdul Razak died on January 14, 1976 while seeking medical treatment in London. He was posthumously granted the soubriquet Bapa Pembangunan (Father of Development). He is laid to rest in Heroes Mausoleum near Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur.

FAMILY

Tun Abdul Razak was descended from a long line of Pahang chieftains of Bugis descent. He was the brother in law of Tun Hussein Onn, his successor as Prime Minister.

Abdul Razak's eldest son, Najib Tun Razak, became the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia under Abdullah Badawi in 2004. He has four other sons, Datuk Ahmad Johari Razak, Mohamed Nizam, Mohamed Nazim and Mohamed Nazir.

Tunku Abdul Rahman


Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah,(February 8, 1903 – December 6, 1990) usually known as "the Tunku" (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country's first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister after Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore joined in 1963 to form Malaysia.

BIRTH

Born in Istana Pelamin, Alor Star, Kedah, Abdul Rahman was the fourteenth son and twentieth child of Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, the twenty-fourth Sultan of Kedah. His mother, Cik Menjalara, was the Sultan's sixth wife and the daughter of Siamese nobleman, Luang Naraborirak (Kleb), a Thai district officer during the reign of King Rama V of Thailand.

Of all the Prime Ministers, Tunku had the most interesting story of birth. In 1902, the Keeper of the Ruler’s Seal was exposed as a man who had misused the trust placed in him and had sold state land for his own gain. Punishment lay with the Sultan, who ordered death for the Keeper, and decreed that the right thumb of the Keeper’s wife as well as those of his children should be chopped off as a taint they would carry on for the rest of their lives.

The Keeper’s wife rushed to Menjalara, then known to be the Sultan’s favourite and implored her intervention. Menjalara, following her maternal instincts, agreed to intercede. She had an audience with her husband, the Sultan and told him that she was pregnant again, but feared her child might be seriously affected if the punishment on the Keeper and his family were to be carried out.

Menjalara was a subtly a clever woman. There is a Malay superstition that a husband should do nothing evil during the period of his wife’s pregnancy, otherwise a dark spirit would enter the child in the womb.

Sultan Abdul Hamid was so elated at the news that his favourite wife was presenting him with another child, and so anxious that nothing unfortunate should happen that he ordered the Keeper to prison instead and cancelled the punishment on his family.

The truth, however, was that Menjalara was not pregnant at that time. But she conceived soon afterwards, and the child born was Abdul Rahman who delights to say when he was alive that he was “born under a lie”.

EARLY LIFE

As a child, he liked nothing better than to play with the children in the kampungs, beyond the istana (palace) in which he was reared – an istana built by a Chinese contractor in the style of a pagoda with fire-snorting dragons climbing around the walls in tiled fantasies. The istana no longer stands as it was razed by fire and on its foundations rose the State Council chamber which marked a new era in the history of Kedah.

Abdul Rahman began his education in 1909 at a Malay Primary School, Jalan Baharu, in Alor Star and was later transferred to the Government English School, now the Sultan Abdul Hamid College, Alor Star, where he studied during the day and read the Qur'an in the afternoon.

When he first went to school in Alor Star, Kedah, little Tunku screamed against what he considered was the indignity of being carried to and fro by a Court retainer. Royalty was autocratic those days and little princes were not suppose to dirty their feet, hence they were carried everywhere. The Tunku rejoiced the day he didn’t have to be carried to school.

Two years later in [[1911}, when he was eight, he was sent to study at Debsirin School in Bangkok along with his three brothers. In 1915, he returned and continued his studies at Penang Free School.

In 1918, Abdul Rahman was awarded a Kedah State Scholarship to further his studies at St Catharine's College in the University of Cambridge, where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1925. He was the first student from Kedah to study in the United Kingdom under the sponsorship of the Kedah State Government.

Prior to joining St Catherine's, he was being coached in the little village of Little Stukeley in Huntington, England for entry to a public school

Upon his return home, Abdul Rahman worked in the Kedah public service and was appointed as District Officer of Kulim and Sungai Petani. In colonial Malaya, almost all the District Officers were British. Abdul Rahman who was the only Malay District Officer at that time had the people's interest at heart. This made him cross paths with the British Administration many times.

However, the British Administration in Kedah could not do anything as he was a prince and the son of the Sultan. However, him angering the colonial administration cost him many chances of promotion to higher offices.

Some time later he returned to England to complete his law studies at the Inner Temple, but was forced to stop in 1938 and, on the outbreak of World War II, he returned to Malaya.

During the Japanese Occupation of Kedah, the Tunku was reponsible for saving many people's lives, both Malay and Chinese. Him being of royal blood, was highly revered by the Japanese and cannot be touched by them. He used this to his advantage. Many people from Kulim today lay claim to owing their lives to the Tunku.

He resumed his studies at the Inner Temple in 1947 and, in 1949, he qualified for the Bar. During this period Abdul Rahman met Abdul Razak Hussein (later known as Datuk and Tun). He was elected president of the Malay Society of Great Britain, and Abdul Razak, who was twenty-six, was his secretary.

EARLY POLITICAL CAREER

After his return to Malaya in 1949, Abdul Rahman was first posted at the Legal Officer's office in Alor Star. He later asked to be transferred to Kuala Lumpur, where he became a Deputy Public Prosecutor. He was later appointed as president of the Sessions Court.

During this period, nationalism was running high among the Malays, with Datuk Onn Jaafar leading the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in the struggle against Britain's Malayan Union (see History of Malaysia). Abdul Rahman joined UMNO and became active in Malayan nationalist politics. In August 1951 an internal crisis in UMNO forced Datuk Onn to resign as party president. Abdul Rahman was elected as the new president, holding the post for 20 years.

ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE

In 1954 Abdul Rahman led a delegation to London to seek independence for Malaya, but the trip proved to be unfruitful. In the following year, the first federal general election was held, and the Alliance Party (Perikatan), a coalition of UMNO, the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) and the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) won fifty-one out of the fifty-two seats contested. Abdul Rahman was elected as Malaya's first Chief Minister. The Alliance was later joined by the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) in 1955, representing the Indian community.

Later in 1955 Abdul Rahman made another trip to London to negotiate Malayan independence, and 31 August 1957 was decided as the date for independence. When the British flag was lowered in Kuala Lumpur on independence day, Abdul Rahman led the crowd in announcing "Merdeka!" (freedom!). Photographs of Abdul Rahman raising his hand, and recordings of his emotional but determined voice leading the cheers, have become familiar icons of Malaysian independence.

PREMIERSHIP

Abdul Rahman dominated the politics of independent Malaya (which became Malaysia in 1963), and led the Alliance to landslide wins in the 1959, and 1964 general elections.

The formation of Malaysia was one of Abdul Rahman's greatest achievements. In 1961 he made a speech at the Foreign Correspondents Association of Southeast Asia in Singapore, proposing a federation Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak, and Brunei. On 16 September 1963, with the federation of all these states except Brunei, Abdul Rahman was formally restyled Prime Minister of Malaysia.

However, the racial factor was worsened with the inclusion of Singapore, which increased the Chinese proportion to close to 40%. Both UMNO and the MCA were nervous about the possible appeal of Lee Kuan Yew's People's Action Party (PAP, then seen as a radical socialist party) to voters in Malaya, and tried to organise a party in Singapore to challenge Lee's position there. Lee in turn threatened to run PAP candidates in Malaya at the 1964 federal elections, despite an earlier agreement that he would not do so (see PAP-UMNO relations). This provoked Abdul Rahman to demand that Singapore withdraw from Malaysia.

On 7 August 1965, Abdul Rahman announced to the Parliament of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur that the Parliament should vote yes on the resolution to have Singapore to leave the Federation, choosing to "sever all ties with a State Government that showed no measure of loyalty to its Central Government" as opposed to the undesirable method of repressing the PAP for its actions. Singapore's secession and independence became official on 9 August 1965.

Abdul Rahman initiated the establishment of the Association of Southeast Asia (ASA) in 1961, grouping Malaya, Thailand and the Philippines. This grouping was later replaced by a larger grouping, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which was formed on 8 August 1967.

At the 1969 general election, the Alliance's majority was greatly reduced. Demonstrations following the elections sparked the May 13 racial riots in Kuala Lumpur. Some UMNO leaders led by Tun Abdul Razak were critical of Abdul Rahman's leadership during these events, and an emergency committee MAGERAN took power and declared a state of emergency. Abdul Rahman's powers as Prime Minister were severely curtailed, and on 22 September 1970, he was forced to resign as Prime Minister in favour of Abdul Razak. He subsequently resigned as UMNO President in June 1971, in the midst of severe opposition of the 'Young Turks' comprising party rebels such as Mahathir Mohammad and Musa Hitam. The duo later became Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia respectively.

INVOLVEMENTS IN ISLAM

After making Islam the official religion in 1960, Abdul Rahman established the Islamic Welfare Organisation (PERKIM), an organisation to help Muslim converts adjust to new lives as Muslims. He was President of PERKIM until a year before his death. In 1961 Malaysia hosted the first International Qur'an Recital Competition, an event that developed from Abdul Rahman's idea when he organised the first state-level competition in Kedah in 1951.

In 1969 Abdul Rahman helped to set up the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC), of which he was the first Secretary-General. Subsequently, he initiated the setting up of the Islamic Development Bank as a specialised institution within the OIC. He was also President of the Regional Islamic Da'wah Council of South East Asia and the Pacific (RISEAP) from 1982 to 1988.

Abdul Rahman upheld the independence social contract of a secular Malaysia with Islam as its official religion. On the occasion of his 80th birthday, Abdul Rahman stated in the The Star newspaper of 9 February 1983 that the "country has a multi-racial population with various beliefs. Malaysia must continue as a secular State with Islam as the official religion." In the same issue of The Star, Abdul Rahman was supported by the third Malaysian Prime Minister, Hussein Onn, who stated that the "nation can still be functional as a secular state with Islam as the official religion."

SPORTS INVOLVEMENT

An avid sportsman, Tunku Abdul Rahman initiated an international football tournament, the Pestabola Merdeka (Independence Football Festival) in 1957. The following year, he was elected as the first president of Asian Football Confederation (AFC), a post he held until 1976.

LATER LIFE

In 1977, having acquired substantial shares in The Star, a Penang-based newspaper, Abdul Rahman became the newspaper's Chairman. His columns, "Looking Back" and "As I See It", were critical of the government, and in 1987 Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad banned the newspaper. This led to a split in UMNO, with Abdul Rahman and another former Prime Minister, Tun Hussein Onn, setting up a new party called UMNO Malaysia, but its registration was quashed by Mahathir Mohamad, who set up his own UMNO Baru ("New UMNO"). Abdul Rahman later supported Semangat 46, a splinter group of UMNO led by Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. He campaigned actively for the latter in the General election of 1990, but was already in very poor health.

DEATH

In his later years, Abdul Rahman lived in his house in Penang. The Tunku died on 6 December 1990 at the age of eighty-seven, and was laid to rest at the Langgar Royal Mausoleum in Alor Star.

FAMILY

Abdul Rahman married at least four times. By his first wife, a Chinese woman named Meriam Chong, he had Tunku Khadijah and Tunku Ahmad Nerang. On Meriam's death, he married his former landlady in England, Violet Coulson. He was ordered to divorce her by the Regent of Kedah.

He then married Sharifah Rodziah Syed Alwi Barakbah, with whom he adopted four children, Sulaiman, Mariam, Sharifah Hanizah(granddaughter) and Faridah. Sharifah Rodziah served as Malaysia's first lady during Tunku's prime ministership.

Wanting to have more children of his own, he secretly married another Chinese lady named Bibi Chong who converted upon marriage. He had two daughters with her, Tunku Noor Hayati and Tunku Mastura.

AWARDS AND RECOGNITION

In 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman was appointed to the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH) by Queen Elizabeth II.

TRIVIA

1. Tunku Abdul Rahman Stamp Issues: In 1991, he adorned part of the collection of Past Prime Ministers of Malaysia stamps issue. In 2003, stamps of Tunku Abdul Rahman were issued to commemorate his 100th birthday anniversary and to pay tribute to him as he was the first prime minister of Malaysia since Malaysia became an independent nation in 1957.

2. The Tunku was fond of fast driving during his days in England and had amounted 28 traffic offences.

3. He claims his lucky number is 13. He would win horse races that were held on the 13th of the month. Winning was a sure thing on Friday the 13th for him, he claimed.

4. He is also very (quite a bit) superstitious. He does not cut his hair or nails on Friday (the Muslim Sabbath) or walk under a ladder.

Saturday, August 25, 2007

SUARA YANG DIDENGAR MAYAT

SUARA YANG DIDENGAR MAYAT

Yang Akan Ikut Mayat Adalah Tiga hal yaitu;

1. Keluarga
2. Hartanya
3. Amalnya

Ada Dua Yang Kembali Dan Satu akan Tinggal Bersamanya yaitu;

1. Keluarga dan Hartanya Akan Kembali
2. Sementara Amalnya Akan Tinggal Bersamanya.


Maka ketika Roh Meninggalkan Jasad
... Terdengarlah Suara Dari Langit Memekik, 'Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan..
·
- Apakah Kau Yang Telah Meninggalkan Dunia, Atau Dunia Yang Meninggalkanmu
·
- Apakah Kau Yang Telah Mengumpul Harta Kekayaan, Atau Kekayaan Yang Telah Mengumpulmu

· - Apakah Kau Yang Telah Menumpuk Dunia, Atau Dunia Yang Telah Menumpukmu
·
- Apakah Kau Yang Telah Mengubur Dunia, Atau Dunia Yang Telah Menguburmu.'

Ketika Mayat Tergeletak Akan Dimandikan
....Terdengar Dari Langit Suara Memekik, 'Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan...
·
- Mana Badanmu Yang Dahulunya Kuat, Mengapa Kini Terkulai Lemah
·
- Mana Lisanmu Yang Dahulunya Fasih, Mengapa Kini Bungkam Tak Bersuara
·
- Mana Telingamu Yang Dahulunya Mendengar, Mengapa Kini Tuli Dari Seribu Bahasa
·
- Mana Sahabat-Sahabatmu Yang Dahulunya Setia, Mengapa Kini Raib Tak Bersuara'

Ketika Mayat Siap Dikafan
...Suara Dari Langit Terdengar Memekik,'Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan
·
- Berbahagialah Apabila Kau Bersahabat Dengan Ridha
·
- Celakalah Apabila Kau Bersahabat Dengan Murka Allah
·
- Kini Kau Tengah Berada Dalam Sebuah Perjalanan Nun Jauh Tanpa Bekal
·
- Kau Telah Keluar Dari Rumahmu Dan Tidak Akan Kembali Selamanya
·
- Kini Kau Tengah Safar Pada Sebuah Tujuan Yang Penuh Pertanyaan.'

Ketika MayatDiusung.
... Terdengar Dari Langit Suara Memekik, 'Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan..
·
- Berbahagialah Apabila Amalmu Adalah Kebajikan
·
- Berbahagialah Apabila Matimu Diawali Taubat
·
- Berbahagialah Apabila Hidupmu Penuh Dengan Taat.'

Ketika Mayat Siap Disholatkan
....Terdengar Dari Langit Suara Memekik, 'Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan..
·
- Setiap Pekerjaan Yang Kau Lakukan Kelak Kau Lihat Hasilnya Di Akhirat
·
- Apabila Baik Maka Kau Akan Melihatnya Baik
·
- Apabila Buruk, Kau Akan Melihatnya Buruk.'

Ketika MayatDibaringkan Di Liang Lahat
.... terdengar Suara Memekik Dari Langit,'Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan...
·
Apa Yang Telah Kau Siapkan Dari Rumahmu Yang Luas Di Dunia Untuk Kehidupan Yang Penuh Gelap Gulita Di Sini


Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan...

·
- Dahulu Kau Tertawa, Kini Dalam Perutku Kau Menangis
·
- Dahulu Kau Bergembira,Kini Dalam Perutku Kau Berduka
·
- Dahulu Kau Bertutur Kata, Kini Dalam Perutku Kau Bungkam Seribu Bahasa.'

Ketika Semua Manusia Meninggalkannya Sendirian...
.. Allah Berkata Kepadanya, 'Wahai Hamba-Ku.. .
·
Kini Kau Tinggal Seorang Diri
·
Tiada Teman Dan Tiada Kerabat
·
Di Sebuah Tempat Kecil, Sempit Dan Gelap..
·
Mereka Pergi Meninggalkanmu. . Seorang Diri
·
Padahal, Karena Mereka Kau Pernah Langgar Perintahku
·
Hari Ini,......
·
Akan Kutunjukan Kepadamu
·
Kasih Sayang-Ku
·
Yang Akan Takjub Seisi Alam
·
Aku Akan Menyayangimu
·
Lebih Dari Kasih Sayang Seorang Ibu Pada Anaknya'.

Kepada Jiwa-Jiwa Yang Tenang Allah Berfirman
, 'Wahai Jiwa Yang Tenang
·
Kembalilah Kepada Tuhanmu
·
Dengan Hati Yang Puas Lagi Diridhai-Nya
·
Maka Masuklah Ke Dalam Jamaah Hamba-Hamba- Ku
·
Dan Masuklah Ke Dalam Jannah-Ku'

Anda Ingin Beramal Soleh ?
Tolong kirimkan Kepada Rakan-Rakan Muslim Lainnya Yang Anda Kenal...!!! Semoga Kematian akan menjadi pelajaran yang berharga bagi kita dalam menjalani hidup ini.

Rasulullah SAW. menganjurkan kita untuk senantiasa mengingat mati (maut) dan dalam sebuah hadithnya yang lain, beliau bersabda 'wakafa bi almauti wa'idha', ertinya, cukuplah mati itu akan menjadi pelajaran bagimu!

Semoga bermanfaat bagi kita semua, Amiin......

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Aktifitas keseharian kita selalu mencuri konsentrasi kita. kita seolah lupa dengan sesuatu yang kita tak pernah tau bila kedatangannya. Sesuatu yang bagi sebahagian orang sangat menakutkan.


Tahukah kita bila kematian akan menjemput kita???

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